E-DESIGN IN ARCHITECTURE:

First International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design

22-24 February 2005 - King Fahad University of Petroleum & Minerals, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia

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Program

Click here to download the Conference Program(DOC).

Conference Program

 

Day I (Tuesday February 22, 2005)

Time

Activity

8.00-8.30 am

Registration

8.30-9.00 am

Opening Ceremony

9.00-9.15 am

Morning Break

9.15-10.15 am

Keynote Address I
Space Syntax Computer based Techniques - Dr. John Peponis

10.15 am -12.00 noon

Session I :
Computational Models in Design and Decision Support

Neil N. Eldin and K. A. Eldrandaly

A Computer-Aided Decision-Making System for Sitting Capital Investment Projects

College of Architecture, Texas A&M University, College Station, USA

Luis Barrionuevo, Roberto Gómez López and Robert Serrentino

Spirospaces in Architectural Design

University of Tucuman, Argentina

Edison Pratini

Modeling with Gestures: Sketching 3D virtual Surfaces and Objects using Hands Formation and Movements

University of Brasilia, Brazil

Sumbul Ahmad and Scott C. Chase

Design Generation of the central Asian CARVANSERAI

University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, United Kingdom

Wael Abdelhameed

A Java Model Program for Design-Ideas Exploration in Three Dimensions

South Valley University, Egypt

Discussion (30 min.)

12.00 noon 1.30 pm

Prayer and Lunch Break

1.30-3.15 pm

Session II:
Design Data Management and Sustainable Buildings

Frank Petzold and Dirk Donath

Digital Building Surveying and Planning in Existing Buildings: Capturing and Structuring Survey Information

Bauhaus-Universitaet Weimar, Germany

Hassan M. Satti and Robert J. Krawczyk

Issues in the Integration of Building Codes in CAD

Illinois Institute of Technology, USA

Dina Taha, Samir Hosni, Hisham Sueyllam, Bernd Streich and Michael Richter

A Case Based Architectural Design System For Residential Units

Alexandria University, Egypt

Amar Bennadji and H. Ahriz, P. Alastair

Computer Aided Sustainable Design

The Robert Gordon University, UK

Khaled A Sherbini and Robert J. Krawczyk

Overview of Intelligent Architecture

KFUPM, Saudi Arabia

Discussion (30 min.)

3.15-3.30 pm

Afternoon Break

3.30-5.00 pm

Keynote Address II (Via Video Conference)
Architectural Design is Computational - Professor Mark D. Gross

 

8.00-11 pm

Conference Dinner

  

Day II (Wednesday February 23, 2005)

Time

Activity

8.45-10.15 am

Session III:
Electronic Architectural Education and Future Architecture

Hesham Khairy Abdelfttah and Ali A. Raouf

Electronic Architecture and Architectural Education

Cairo University, Egypt

Jamal Al-Qawasmi

Reflections on E-Design: The E-Studio Experience

KFUPM, Saudi Arabia

Mohamed Alaa Mandour

From Hard Architecture to Soft Architecture: Architecture Form in the 21st Century

Helwan University, Egypt

Ashraf Mohamed Abdel Mohsen

Future Space Cities @ Universe: DIGI-CITY VISION

Ain Shams University, Egypt

Discussion (30 min.)

10.15-10.30 am

Refreshments

10.30am -12.00 noon

Session IV :
Computer Visualization in Architecture

Zaki Mallasi

Identification, and Visualization of Construction Activities Workspace Conflicts Utilizing 4D CAD/VR Tools

University of Teesside
Middlesbrough
, UK

Ramzi Hassan and K. Jorgensen

Computer Visualizations in Planning: Computer techniques for visualization of development scenarios for historically important landscapes and urban spaces. The case of Nablus.

Agricultural University of Norway (NLH), Norway

Aghlab Al-Attili and Richard Coyne

Embodiment and Illusion: The Implications of Scale as a Cue for Immersion in Virtual Environments

The University of Edinburgh, Scotland

Shaibu Bala Garba

A review of Virtual Reality implementation in the Architecture Curriculum at KFUPM

KFUPM , Saudi Arabia

Discussion (30 min.)

12.00 noon 1.30 pm

Prayer and Lunch Break

1.30-3.15 pm

Session V:
Computers in Environmental Quality and Life Cycle

Dirk Donath

Plausibility in Architectural Design: Software Support for the Architect-Oriented Design of Colour Schemes for Interiors and Buildings

Bauhaus-Universitaet Weimar, Germany

Magdy Radwan and Lobna Abdellatif

Application of Computers in Architectural Acoustics

Assiut University, Egypt

Khaled Salah Said Abd El-Magid

A computer program for limiting the suitable color range for building facade

University of Architecture, Civil and Geodesy, Bulgaria

Shaibu B. Garba and Mohammad A. Hassanain

Overview of Object Oriented CAAD Potentials in facilitating building information

KFUPM , Saudi Arabia,

David Leifer and J. Leifer

Towards Computer Aided Life-Cycle Costing

Australia, University of Sydney

Discussion (30 min.)

3.15-3.30 pm

Afternoon Break

3.30-4.00 pm

Conference Closing Remarks
Dr. Rabee M. Reffat

4.00-6.00 pm

ASCAAD General Assembly Meeting

 

Day III (Thursday December 9, 2004)

Time

Activity

Location

8.30 am-12.00 pm

Social Trip

 

12.00noon 2.00pm

Lunch (Optional)

 


Session I: Computational Models in Design and Decision Support

 

A Computer-Aided Decision-Making System for Sitting Capital Investment Projects

Neil N. Eldin and K. A. Eldrandaly

College of Architecture, Texas A&M University, College Station, USA

Site selection for capital investments is a crucial complex decision for owners and analysts. Difficulties are caused by the inclusion of the numerous possible sites that may qualify, multiple objectives that could also contradict each other, intangible objectives that are difficult to quantify, diversity of interest groups, uncertainties regarding external factors such as government legislations, uncertainties regarding the timing required for permitting the sites in question, and unknown construction challenges for the different sites. As such, these exercises are multi-facetted and necessitate the employment of analysts who possess in-depth knowledge in a number of fields. More importantly, a solution must satisfy a number of physical suitability criteria, as well as, meeting a number of social, economical, environmental and political requirements. Consequently, a number of specialized tools is frequently utilized to ensure reaching an optimal decision. This paper presents a new system that integrates Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) operations within a Geographic Information System (GIS) application to determine the optimum site for a specified facility. The system was validated through a facility for a selected metropolitan area.

 

Spirospaces in Architectural Design

Luis Barrionuevo, Roberto Gómez López and Robert Serpentino

University of Tucuman, Argentina

The proposal of this paper is to present "Spirospaces" and their utility in Architecture and Design, exploring their relation with other geometrical disciplines such as knot theory, tiling and patterns generation. A spirospace is a geometrical entity generated from the tridimentional interpretation of a "Spirolateral", a well known bidimentional entity. The emerging spatial qualities of a spirospace are of a particularly interest from the architectural perspective.

A computer program is presented as the appropriate media to model configurations. The results obtained from the program are analyzed to determine their possible use as architectural forms. Several graphics illustrations are presented showing steps going from the exploration of spatial alternatives to the selection of a specific configuration to be developed. Besides, a mathematical formula that allows to generate closed spirospaces with a number N of modules of segments has been settled down, with a quantity C of predetermined cycles.

Modeling with Gestures: Sketching 3D virtual Surfaces and Objects using Hands Formation and Movements

Edison Pratini

University of Brasilia, Brazil

The 3D SketchMaker project has developed two prototypes for a gestural 3D sketching system to be used in the earliest phases of the design process. The goal of this ongoing research is to provide architects, and other designers involved in object conception, with a 3D gestural instrument that takes advantage of new virtual reality resources and is more natural than using the mouse, less difficult than learning complex software and less abstract than manipulating 2D entities on orthogonal projections.

The system was conceived to assist or replace the first 2D drawing steps in the design process, generating rough 3D sketches that can be refined later using any 3D package. It is, in essence, a 3D modeling system directed to do sketching with hand movements and gestures in a virtual reality environment.

Design Generation of the central Asian CARVANSERAI

Sumbul Ahmad and Scott C. Chase

University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, United Kingdom

The paper describes the development of a parametric shape grammar for the design generation of the ground plans of an Islamic building typethe caravanserai. The grammar is then used to generate a new design based on the same principles.

A Java Model Program for Design-Ideas Exploration in Three Dimensions

Wael Abdelhameed

South Valley University, Egypt

Visual Perception of depictions is the basis of the act of imagining employed in visual design thinking of design process, and consequently in design-idea exploration. Digital-media use plays a significantly important role in these exploration processes. The underlying assumption of the research is that Visual Perception affects Design-Idea Exploration processes. The research investigates and sheds more light on the processes of Visual Perception, which architects use in mass exploration of design ideas.

The research is a part of a series that presents a Java program based on creating 3d shapes, in order for architects to explore initial shapes related to design ideas. The initial version of the program, which is a part of another research, creates 3d shapes through controlling their dimensions and insertion point. Functions of painting, controlling the light position, and shading are added to the program that is presented in this research. The research discusses Design-Idea Exploration and Visual Perception and their correlation. The added features of the program that is used as a design medium are also presented and linked to the investigated areas.

Session II: Design Data Management and Sustainable Buildings

Digital Building Surveying and Planning in Existing Buildings: Capturing and Structuring Survey Information

Frank Petzold and Dirk Donath

Bauhaus-Universitaet Weimar, Germany

For planning in existing built contexts, the building survey is the starting point for initial planning proposals, for the diagnosis and documentation of building damages, for the creation of objectives catalogues, for the detailed design of renovation and conversion measures and for ensuring fulfilment of building legislation, particularly by change of use and refitting. An examination of currently available IT-tools shows insufficient support for planning within existing contexts, most notably a deficit with regard to information capture and administration.

In ongoing research at the Bauhaus-Universität Weimar (SFB524-Collaborative research center 524 Materials and Structure in Revitalization of Buildings) methods and techniques of revitalisation are being investigated (SFB 524, 2004). A special branch of SFB524-D2 entitled Planning-Relevant Digital Building Surveying and Information Systems is investigating possibilities of computer-aided building survey and communication platforms for architects and civil engineers.

This paper discusses the concept for a modular surveying system (basic concept, structuring of collected data, separation of geometry from semantic data, and separation into sub-systems) and the prototypical realisation of a system for the complete support of the entire building surveying process for existing buildings. The project aims to contribute to the development of a planning system for existing buildings.

 

Issues in the Integration of Building Codes in CAD

Hassan M. Satti and Robert J. Krawczyk

Illinois Institute of Technology, USA

In this age of information revolution, design professionals are looking forward to exploring new methods and tools that could help them in delivering better designs and particularly understanding and incorporating of code-compliant design provisions in their projects. Automation of building code analysis is a vital factor in leveraging building codes from what is as a textual legal document to more graphical interactive source of building criteria. The argument of the paper will be based on the International Building Code (IBC) which is issued by the International Code Council (ICC) and considered as the most comprehensive and coordinated national model code in the US and is currently commonly used and enforced in 44 states. The paper will also examine and report on the purpose, types, interpretation, understanding and use of building codes applied in the United States; evaluation of recent research activities on automation of building code analysis; evaluation of current building code analysis tools; and a conceptual framework of a Computer-Aided Analysis of Design (CAAnD) program for building codes that could assist design professionals during project design development.

 

A Case Based Architectural Design System for Residential Units

Dina Taha, Samir Hosni, Hisham Sueyllam, Bernd Streich and Michael Richter

Alexandria University, Egypt

Case Based Reasoning (CBR) is an AI approach that is widely used in many fields. When its applied in the design field, it is frequently called Case Based Design (CBD). Its main idea resides in drawing analogies between past cases and the new case to be solved so that the user can make use of past experiences when solving a new problem. The work presented here describes a prototype application under development that makes use of CBR in the field of architectural design. The application is to act as a helping tool for architects in the pre-design phase by supplying them with an adequate number of similar past architectural cases to the design problem they have at hand. The different modules of the application will be presented and discussed, as well as the tools used to develop them.

Computer Aided Sustainable Design

Amar Bennadji and H. Ahriz, P. Alastair

The Robert Gordon University, UK

One of the most important aspects architects need to consider fairly early on is that of energy saving, cost, thermal comfort and the effect on the environment in terms of CO2 emissions. At present, during the early design stage of a building, different options are assessed using simple tools (tables, graphs and software) that contain a large number of assumptions the very nature of which can bias choice or possibly lead to an inappropriate solution. It can be argued that the only way to provide a rational assessment of options is to use calculation methods that represent in detail the physical processes involved; this usually involves the use of dynamic thermal models. Furthermore if this tool is also used during detailed design it would introduce a consistency that is normally absent from the analytical design process. Many designers are of the opinion that, because not all details are known, then such tools are not suitable for application at early stages in the design. This view can be challenged because, even at the concept stage, a great deal is known about a building. This paper aims to show that a general description of a building can be used to generate sufficient data to drive a valid analysis using a detailed thermal model at the early sketch stage of the design process. The paper describes the philosophy, methodology and the interface developed to achieve this aim. The interface guides the user through the input process using a series of screens giving options for keywords used to describe the building; comprehensive default data built into the software are then attached to these keywords. The resulting data file is a building description that is the best possible interpretation of the design intent. This can then be used to assess options and guide towards a final design.

 

Overview of Intelligent Architecture

Khaled A Sherbini and Robert J. Krawczyk

KFUPM, Saudi Arabia

The concept of intelligent architecture started as an interest in the latest integrated building systems operating a single building or facility, so that systems can communicate and exchange information. The communication among these systems allows the appropriate responses and decisions to operate buildings in a productive, economical and convenient way. Communication and information sharing prevents decisions from interfering with other systems responses or operation. Systems decisions and responses form the responsive architecture that is represented by systems outputs.

If intelligent buildings need to receive, analyze, and react according to such processes of one input parameter. Technology and communication systems make it possible to combine several parameters by using system integration and computerization. Technology and computerized systems have enhanced and changed the manner of responses and provided a variety of decisions according to different sources of information.

Receiving, analyzing, and reacting are the key criteria of an intelligent building that this paper will explore. This paper will survey the forms of responses to determine whether or not the kinetic response is a viable choice. The paper will also discuss if these three criteria are the only criteria creating intelligent building or if there are others. The survey portion of the paper will discuss intelligent buildings and architectural elements, explain their operation systems, and whether these systems promote intelligent architecture. In addition, this paper will draw distinctions among the definitions of intelligent, responsive and kinetic architecture and organize them within a hierarchical and logical relationship.

 

Session III: Electronic Architectural Education and Future Architecture

 

Electronic Architecture and Architectural Education

Hesham Khairy Abdelfttah and Ali A. Raouf

Cairo University, Egypt

Operating electronic and Internet worked tools for Architectural education is an important, but merely prerequisite step toward creating powerful tele-collabortion and tele-research in our Architectural studios. The design studio, as physical place and pedagogical method, is the core of architectural education. The Carnegie Endowment report on architectural education, published in 1996, identified a comparably central role for studios in schools today.

Advances in CAD and visualization, combined with technologies to communicate images, data, and live action, now enable virtual dimensions of studio experience. Students no longer need gather at the same time and place to tackle the same design problem. Critics can comment over the network or by e-mail, and distinguished jurors can make virtual visits without being in the same room as the pin-upif there is a pin-up (or a room).

Virtual design studios (VDS) have the potential to support collaboration over competition, diversify student experiences, and redistribute the intellectual resources of architectural education across geographic and socioeconomic divisions. The catch is predicting whether VDS will isolate students from a sense of place and materiality, or if it will provide future architects the tools to reconcile communication environments and physical space.

 

Reflections on E-Design: The E-Studio Experience

Jamal Al-Qawasmi

KFUPM, Saudi Arabia

For two academic years I have been involved in teaching what has been called the e-studio. The e-studio is part of an effort to integrate digital media in the design studio and to raise the quality of studio instruction at Department of Architecture, Jordan University of Science & Technology. The primary goal of the e-studio is to teach students how to think and design using mainly digital media. This paper reports on the e-studio experiments and discusses the pedagogical implications of the studio. It contributes to the understanding of the relationship between digital media, and design practices and education. Observations revealed that digital media as used in the e-studio bring dramatic changes to the architectural design process, the design studio praxis, the design outcome, and the position of the designer in these processes. The e-studio also showed the need to reconsider our traditional understanding of the design studio culture.

From Hard Architecture to Soft Architecture: Architecture Form in the 21st Century

Mohamed Alaa Mandour

Helwan University, Egypt

The digital revolution is affecting not only the way we produce drawings, but also the way we think about architecture. Such expressionistic, neo-baroque forms would have been unthinkable without higher technology, which allows for customization at a massive scale. Three dimensional computation extends the architect's range, permitting a wealth of experimentation, any form seems possible, the architecture language, the vocabulary changed, and the way design thinking has various dimensions.

Within a short space of time the computer has become a widely accepted feature of architecture, both in the design process and in the everyday operation of buildings, and we are constantly aware that the computer's introductions into architecture will eventually have far-reaching consequences. After all, the current revolution is not just about the computer as a tool but about its role and effect on the form of architecture and thinking

This paper will discuss what form will architecture take in the next years?

Future Space Cities @ Universe: DIGI-CITY VISION

Ashraf Mohamed Abdel Mohsen

Ain Shams University, Egypt

 

A template for the future city has been carved into the heavens. Ever since the beginning of humankind, we have looked to the sky for the opportunity to make a new start in our imperfect world. Between the stars and the darkness we have imagined utopias beyond the reach of our travel technologies, colonizing space with our fantasies.

Now we are in the first stages of an electronic revolution, but in the future 50 years later we will be in a mega-digital era which we have to predict, work and search for the reality of that future.

Earth - our planet is recently over loaded with different problems, such as pollution, population, nature disasters.

Our vast speed of technology and the curiosity of discovering the invisible, leads to study and find out the nearest future architecture.

 

Session IV: Computer Visualization in Architecture

 

Identification, and Visualization of Construction Activities Workspace Conflicts Utilizing 4D CAD/VR

Zaki Mallasi

Tools University of Teesside Middlesbrough, UK

 

This work addresses the problem arising on all construction sites: the occurrence of workspace interference between construction activities. From a site space planning context, this problem can lead to an inevitable roadblock to the progress of the scheduled construction operations. In real situations, when the spatial congestions occur, they could reduce productivity of workers sharing the same workspace and may cause health and safety hazard issues. The aim of this paper is on presenting a computer-based method and developed tool to assist site managers in the assignment and identification of workspace conflicts. The author focuses on the concept of visualizing space competition between the construction activities. The concept is based on a unique representation of the dynamic behavior of activity workspace in 3D space and time.

 

Computer Visualizations in Planning: Computer techniques for visualization of development scenarios for historically important landscapes and urban spaces. The case of Nablus.

Ramzi Hassan and K. Jorgensen

Agricultural University of Norway (NLH), Norway

 

A wide range of visualizations have been developed and implemented as tools for urban simulations and visual impact assessment. These include: plans, diagrams, elevations, perspective sketches, renderings, modified photographs (photo renderings and photomontages), slide projections, scale models, movies, videotapes and computer graphics. In the last decade, graphical computer applications have proven to be an increasingly supportive tool in visualization and manipulation of graphical material. This study presents the state of the art of computer visualization in planning. More specifically, the use of web-based computerized visualizations for landscape visual simulation, with the aim to develop a system of visualization techniques as an aid to communicating planning and design scenarios for historically important landscapes and urban places, with particular attention to the city of Nablus in Palestine. This has led to the evaluation of possibilities and potentials of computer use in this field, and to the definition of the visual problems and challenges of the city of Nablus. This study will argue what extra one can draw from computerized visualizations, what is likely to be its impact on future planning and design research, and what this visualization experience really means for historical important locations as in Nablus. The study demonstrates that computerized visualizations can be a powerful tool in representing a cityscape in three-dimensions from different angels. Visualizations will allow better understanding of the components of the city, its landscapes, city features and the process of change. In this way it may provide new and better platforms for public participation in planning.

 

Embodiment and Illusion: The Implications of Scale as a Cue for Immersion in Virtual Environments

Aghlab Al-Attili and Richard Coyne

The University of Edinburgh, Scotland

 

This paper examines the extent to which the issue of scale impinges on our sense of immersion in virtual environments. We consider perception from the point of view of Merleau-Ponty's phenomenology, and describe a study involving extended interviews of a small number of subjects who were presented with static, moving and interactive images of spaces. We test a series of propositions about scale cues, and speculate on the wider phenomenological issues of expectation, metaphor and play.

 

A review of Virtual Reality implementation in the Architecture Curriculum at KFUPM

Shaibu Bala Garba

KFUPM, Saudi Arabia

Following a recent curriculum revision, the Department of Architecture at the King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM) established a Virtual Reality (VR) laboratory to service its information technology courses and research. Two years after the establishment of the laboratory, utilization has not reached the level anticipated and the facility is yet to be fully integrated into teaching and research activities. The paper reviews the implementation of the laboratory with a view to identifying and examining the factors that account for its current utilization. Factors identified in the paper included inability to fully implement the proposal for the laboratory, inadequate implementation preparation, complicated procedure for producing visualization content, and computing resource compatibility problems. The paper concludes with general suggestions for schools trying to implement virtual reality in their curriculum and specific suggestions to improve the utilization of the KFUPM VR laboratory.

 

Session V: Computers in Environmental Quality and Life Cycle

 

Plausibility in Architectural Design: Software Support for the Architect-Oriented Design of Colour Schemes for Interiors and Buildings

Dirk Donath

Bauhaus-Universitaet Weimar, Germany

 

The approach discussed here is part of research into an overall concept for digital instruments which support the entire planning process and help in enabling planning decisions to be based upon clear reasoning and plausible arguments.

The paper describes a plausibility instrument for the formulation of color scheme proposals for building interiors and elevations. With the help of intuitively usable light simulations, color, material and spatial concepts can be assessed realistically. The software prototype Colored Architecture is conceived as a professional extension to conventional design tools for the modeling of buildings. As such it can be used by the architect in the earliest design phases of the planning process as well as for color implementation on location.

 

Application of Computers in Architectural Acoustics

Magdy Radwan and Lobna Abdellatif

Assiut University, Egypt

.. .. :

1-1 (Analogue) Sound Level Meter .

1-2 Simulation Models .. .

1-3 Delay .

1-4 .

1-5 Active Noise Control A N C .

.

A computer program for limiting the suitable color range for building facade

Khaled Salah Said Abd El-Magid

University of Architecture, Civil and Geodesy, Bulgaria

 

Because limiting the suitable color range is one of the important steps in the process of choosing color for facades, this paper aims at developing and presenting a rule based program that its main function is Limiting the Suitable Color Range (LSCR) for building facade in accordance with all circumstances and factors influencing the building and the color decision. So, the paper presents the steps of color limitation process, its requirements and classification for different factors that influence color decision such as functional, climatic, environmental, social, commercial and political factorsetc. After this step, the paper presents a description for the supposed program, its components (the user interface, the knowledge base, the inference engine and the color palette) and the relationships in-between. Then the paper presents the running sequence of LSCR and a practical example for using it in limiting the suitable color range for a facade due to different influencing factors.

 

Overview of Object Oriented CAAD Potentials in facilitating building information

Shaibu B. Garba and Mohammad A. Hassanain

KFUPM , Saudi Arabia,

 

Communication and information flow among the various actors and processes involved in the life of a building is a critical necessity for effective life cycle management. The traditional building delivery process has to a large extent resulted in poor communication and information flow and has limited the potential for effective life cycle management. Recent developments in Object Oriented Computer Aided Architectural Design (OO CAD) have provided the opportunity for improving information flow in the building process and for more effective life cycle management. The aim of the paper is to examine the potentials and realities of OO CAD in improving communication and management in the life cycle process. The paper reviews the building life cycle process, identifying the various actors and activities and the need for communication and information flow to support life cycle management. The paper also reviews the concept of OO CAD, highlighting its potential to improve information flow and communication in life cycle management. The paper then goes on to review the potentials and limitations of OO CAD implementation in the AEC industry. The paper concludes by pointing out that the widespread adoption of OO CAD and the anticipated associated improvement in life cycle management will only be encouraged when the building industry is able to agree on a widely acceptable, interoperable standard for encoding building objects.

 

Towards Computer Aided Life-Cycle Costing

David Leifer and J. Leifer

Australia, University of Sydney

 

Sustainability is recognized as a necessary public good. Unfortunately the predominant view in the Building Industries of the Developed world is essentially short term; this is because building developers not being the end users - are essentially interested in short term profit. Until they can see the value-added by sustainability impacting on the selling price of their buildings, they will not be motivated to build sustainably.

This paper describes the issues that have led to this situation. It discussed how the advent of computers has allowed life-cycle data to be gathered over time, and we are now able to reap the benefits by performance benchmarking. The availability of this building performance information on-line is making life-cycle costing more readily available, and more accurate, allowing building developers, owners and users to make rapid and timely feasibility studies well in advance of design. This also allows owners to test various capital to operating cost options in order to get the best economic performance over time, as well as map future capital replacement cycles. These emerging possibilities are discussed in this paper.